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Quality Assurance/Quality Control Manual: Ohio Water Microbiology Laboratory



American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, 2004–2007, Standard methods for the analysis of water and wastewater: Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association [variously paginated].

American Society for Testing and Materials, 1999, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Section 11, Water and Environmental Technology, Designation: D 1193-99, p. 107-109.

Bisson, J.W.,  and Cabelli, V.J.,  1979, Membrane Filter Enumeration Method for Clostridium perfringens: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 37, no. 1, p. 55-66.

Britton , L.J., and Greeson, P.E., eds., 1987, Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 5, chap. A4, 363 p.

Bushon, R.N., Brady, A.M., Likirdopulos, C.A., and Cireddu, J.V., 2009, Rapid detection of Escherichia coli and enterococci in recreational water using immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate technique: Journal of Applied Microbiology, v. 106, p. 432-441.

Bushon, R.N., Brady, A.M.G., and Plona, M.B., 2007, Using a rapid method to predict recreational water quality at the Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio: Park Science, v. 24, no.2, p. 89–93.

Dick, L.K., Bernhard, A.E., Brodeur, T.J., Santo Domingo, J.W., Simpson, J. M., Walters, S.P., and Field, K.G., 2005, Host distributions of uncultivated fecal Bacteroidales reveal genetic markers for fecal source identification: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 71, no. 6, p. 3184–3191.

Doblin, M.A., Coyne, K.J., Rinta-Kanto, J.M., Wilhelm, S.W., and Dobbs, F.C., 2007, Dynamics and short-term survival of toxic cyanobacteria species in ballast water from NOBOB vessels transiting the Great lakes—implications for HAB invasions: Harmful Algae, v. 6., p. 519-530.

Fout, G.S., Martinson, B.C., Moyer, M.W.N., and Dahling, D.R., 2003, A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR method for detection of human enteric viruses in groundwater: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 69, no. 6, p. 3158-3164.

Francy, D.S., and Shaffer, K., 2008, Quality-assurance plan for water-qual­ity activities in the Ohio Water Science Center: U.S. Geolog­ical Survey Open-File Report XX-XXX, X p.

Francy, D.S., Helsel, D.L., and Nally, R.A., 2000, Occurrence and distribution of micro­biological indicators in ground water and stream water: Water Environment Research, v. 72, no. 2, 152 p.

Green, H.C., Dick, L.K., Gilpin, B., Samadpour, M., and Field, K.G., 2012, Genetic markers for rapid PCR-based identification of gull, Canada goose, duck, and chicken fecal contamination in water: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 78, no. 2, p. 503–510.

Gregory, J.B., Litaker, R.W., and Noble, R.T., 2006, Rapid one-step quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay with competitive internal positive control for detection of enteroviruses in environmental samples: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 72, no. 6, p. 3960-3967.

Ijzerman, M.M., and Hagedorn, C., 1992, Improved method for coliphage detection based on b-galactosidase induction: Journal of Virological Methods, v. 40, p. 31-36.

Jothikumar, N., Cromeans, T.L., Hill, V.R., Lu, X., Sobsey, M.D., and Erdman, D.D., 2005a, Quantitative real-time PCR assays for detection of human adenovirus and identification of serotypes 40 and 41: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 71, no. 6, p. 3131-3136.

Jothikumar, N., Lowther, J.A., Henshilwood, K., Lees, D.N., Hill, V.R., Vinje, J., 2005b, Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Noroviruses by Using TaqMan-Based One-Step Reverse Transcription-PCR Assays and Application to Naturally Contaminated Shellfish Samples: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 71, no. 4, p. 1870-1875.

Kildare, B.J., Leutenegger, C.M., McSwain, B.S., Bambic, D.G., Rajal, V.B., and Wuertz, S., 2007, 16S rRNA-based assays for quantitative detection of universal, human-, cow-, and dog-specific fecal Bacteroidales: A Bayesian approach: Water Research, v. 41, p. 3701–3715.

Lambertini, E., Spencer, S.K., Bertz, P.D., Loge, F.J., Kieke, B.A., and Borchardt, M.A., 2008, Concentration of enteroviruses, adenoviruses, and noroviruses from drinking water by use of glass wool filters: Applied and Environmental Microbiology: vol. 74, no. 10, p. 2990-2996.

Layton, A., McKay, L., Williams, D., Garrett, V., Gentry, R., and Sayler, G., 2006, Development of Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays for estimation of total, human, and bovine fecal pollution in water: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 72, no. 6, p. 4214-4224.

Lee, JiYoung, and Deininger, R.A., 2004, Detection of E. coli in beach water within 1 hour using immunomagnetic separation and ATP bioluminescence: Luminescence, v. 19, p. 31–36.

Madigan, M. T., Martinko, J.M., and Parker, J., Brock, Biology of Microoganisms—Ninth Edition: Prentice Hall, Upper Sadlle River, NJ, p. 519.

Morales-Morales, H.A., Vidal, G., Olszewski, J., Rock, C.M., Dasgupta, D., Oshima, K.H., and Smith, G.B., 2003, Optimization of a reusable hollow-fiber ultrafilter for simultaneous concentration of enteric bacteria, protozoa, and viruses from water: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 69, p. 4098−4012.

Myers, D.N., Stoeckel, D.M., Bushon, R.N., Francy, D.S., and Brady, A.M.G., 2007, Fecal indicator bacteria (ver. 2.0): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A7, section 7.1, February, accessed April 2013 from

Noble, R.T., Blackwood, A. Denene, Griffith, J.F., McGee, C.D., and Weisberg, S.B., 2010 ,
Comparison of Rapid Quantitative PCR-Based and Conventional Culture-Based Methods for Enumeration of Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli in Recreational Waters: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 76, no. 22, p. 7437-7443.

Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, 2015, Ohio EPA Total (extracellular and intracellular) microcystins—ADDA by ELISA Analytical Methodology, Version 2.2, November 2015, 6 p.

Ostermaier and Kurmayer, 2009, Distribution and abundance of nontoxic mutants of cyanobacteria in lakes of the Alps: Microb. Ecol. v. 58, 323-333.

Rantala, A., Fewer, D.P., Hisbergues, M., Rouhiainen, L., Vaitomaa, J., Borner, T., Sivonen, K., 2004, Phylogenetic evidence for the early evolution of microcystin synthesis: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, v. 101, no. 2, p. 568-573.

Rantala, A., Rajaniemi-Wacklin, P., Lyra, C., Lepisto, L., Rintala, J., Mankiewicz-Boczek, J., Sivonen, K. 2006. Detection of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria in Finnish lakes with genus-specific microcystin synthetase gene E (mcyE) PCR and associations with environmental factors. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:6101-6110.

Rinta-Kanto, J.M., Ouellette, A.J.A., Boyer, G.L., Twiss, M.R., Bridgeman, T.B., Wilhelm, S.W. 2005. Quantification of toxic Microcystis spp. during the 2003 and 2004 blooms in western Lake Erie using quantitative real-time PCR. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39:4198-4205.

Seurinck, S., Defoirdt, T., Verstraete, W., Siciliano, S.D., 2005, Detection and quantification of the human-specific HF183 Bacteroides 16S rRNA genetic marker with real-time PCR for assessment of human faecal pollution in freshwater: Environmental Microbiology, v. 7, no. 2, p. 249–259.

Siefring S., Varma M., Atikovic E., Wymer L., and Haugland R., 2008, Improved real-time PCR assays for the detection of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters with different instrument and reagent systems: Journal of Water and Health, v. 6, no. 2, p. 225–237.

Sinigalliano, C.D., Fleisher, J.M., Gidley, M.L., Solo-Gabriele, H.M., Shibata, T., Plano, L.R.W., Elmir, S.M., Wanless, D., Bartkowiak, J., Boiteau, R., Withum, K., Abdelzaher, A.M., He, G., Ortega, C., Zhu, X., Wright, M.E., Kish, J., Hollenbeck, J., Scott, T., Backer, L.C., Fleming, L.E. 2010. Traditional and molecular analyses for fecal indicator bacteria in non-point source subtropical recreational marine waters. Water Research, v. 44, p. 3763-3772.

Sipari, H., Rantala-Ylinen, A., Jokela, J., Oksanen, I., Sivonen, K. 2010. Development of a chip assay and quantitative PCR for detecting microcystin synthetase E gene expression. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:3797-3805.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1978, Microbiological methods for monitoring the environment—water and wastes: Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-600/8-78-017, 338 p.           

_________________1985, Test methods for Escherichia coli and enterococci in water by the membrane filtered procedure: Cincinnati, Ohio, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, EPA 600/4-85/076, 24 p.

_________________1996, EPA Information Collection Rule microbial laboratory manual: Washington, D.C., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/600/R-95/178.

_________________2000a, Improved enumeration methods for the recreational water quality indicators: enterococci and Escherichia coli: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Science and Technology, EPA/821/R-97/004.

_________________2000b, Improved enumeration methods for the recreational water quality indicators: enterococci and Escherichia coli: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Science and Technology, EPA/821/R-97/004.

_________________2001a, Method 1601: Male-specific (F+) and somatic coliphage in water by two-step enrichment procedure: Washington, D.C., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-821-R-01-030. 

_________________2001b, Method 1602: Male-specific (F+) and somatic coliphage in water by single agar layer (SAL) procedure: Washington, D.C., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-821-R-01-029. 

_________________ 2002, Method 1604—Total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water by membrane filtration using a simultaneous detection technique (MI medium): Washington D.C., EPA 821-R-02-024, 14 p.

_________________ 2005, Method 1623¾Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water by filtration/IMS/FA: Washington, D.C., EPA 815-R-05-002, 76 p.

______________ 2006a, Method 1603—Escherichia coli in water by membrane filtration using modified membrane-thermotolerant Escherichia coli agar (Modified mTEC): Washington, D.C., EPA 821-R-06-011, 24 p.

_________________2006b, Method 1600—Enterococci in water by membrane filtration using membrane-Enterococcus Indoxyl-b-D-Glucoside agar (mEI): Washington, D.C., EPA-821-R-06-009, 24 p.

______________ 2012a, Method 1611: Enterococci in Water by TaqMan Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) Assay: Washington, D.C., EPA 821-R-12-008, 56 p., accessed April 2013 at

______________ 2012b, Method 1615—measurement of enterovirus and norovirus occurrence in water by culture and RT-qPCR: Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH., EPA 600/R-10/181, accessed July 2013 at

Weidhaas, J.L., Macbeth, T.W., Olsen, R.L., Sadowsky, M.J., Norat, D., and Harwood, V.J., 2010, Identification of a Brevibacterium marker gene specific to poultry litter and development of a quantitative PCR assay: Journal of Applied Microbiology, v. 109, p. 334–347.



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